To keep away from this illness, it’s best to know its transmission mechanisms and, if doubtful, bear an HIV take a look at as a result of an early analysis all the time improves the prognosis of AIDS.
AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is the superior stage of the illness attributable to HIV (HIV), which is transmitted from individual to individual via bodily fluids reminiscent of blood, semen, and seminal fluid, vaginal and rectal secretions, so long as these fluids come into contact with mucous membranes or the bloodstream (for instance, via a wound).
HIV progressively destroys the immune system of the one that has contracted it; particularly, it impacts cells referred to as T4 lymphocytes (additionally referred to as T helper lymphocytes, or CD4). An individual contaminated with HIV is known as seropositive (HIV optimistic) when the virus is in his physique however has no overt signs and develops AIDS when the T4 lymphocyte rely is lower than 200 cells per cubic milliliter of blood (the conventional rely for a wholesome particular person ranges from 500–1500 cells per cubic milliliter) and has scientific manifestations of the illness.
Ailments related to HIV an infection
This causes the physique to stay unprotected in opposition to opportunistic infections, that are those who wouldn’t happen in a wholesome particular person as a result of, of their case, their immune system is able to preventing in opposition to the organisms that trigger them.
As well as, because the CD4 cell rely decreases, the danger of the affected person creating illnesses reminiscent of herpes simplex, herpes zoster, tuberculosis, pneumonia, candidiasis, neurological pathologies, eye and digestive problems, kidney or coronary heart issues, and so on., in addition to numerous kinds of most cancers reminiscent of Kaposi’s sarcoma or lymphoma.
All individuals who have the virus of their physique, whether or not HIV-positive or have developed to AIDS, are carriers and might transmit the virus. Though curing this illness shouldn’t be but doable, there have been nice advances in antiretroviral remedy, which have facilitated adherence to it, and have elevated each the standard of life and the longevity of sufferers. With out remedy, AIDS is deadly.
HIV an infection prevalence
In accordance with UNAIDS knowledge, on the finish of 2019, 75.7 million individuals have contracted HIV an infection for the reason that starting of the epidemic. There are presently 38 million individuals with HIV worldwide, of which 26 million (as much as the top of 2019) have entry to antiretroviral remedy.
The annual report revealed by the Ministry of Well being in November 2020 indicated that 2,698 new diagnoses had been reported in 2019, equal to a charge of 5.94 / 100,000 inhabitants, barely decrease than the info supplied for 2018
How is AIDS unfold?
HIV is unfold via semen, blood, vaginal secretions, and breast milk. These are the physique fluids which have a focus of the virus ample to contaminate an individual.
Subsequently, there are 3 ways during which the AIDS virus is unfold :
- Sexual route: via sexual contact, whether or not vaginal, anal, or oral; being anal intercourse presents a larger threat because of the delicacy of the tissues and the convenience with which accidents can happen.
- Blood route: it’s produced by sharing any materials in touch with the blood of an contaminated particular person, which can later come into contact with the blood of a wholesome particular person. It may be syringes, needles, and all the fabric used for piercing, tattoos, or acupuncture periods and has not been beforehand sterilized. The danger of transmission via blood transfusions is presently very low, because of the in depth controls carried out on donated blood.
- Vertical route (mother-child): when the mom is seropositive, the transmission of the virus can happen throughout being pregnant, childbirth, and breastfeeding.
Teams most liable to contagion of AIDS
Based mostly on this, there are a collection of teams that current a larger threat of contracting HIV:
- Newborns of moms with HIV who didn’t obtain any sort of remedy throughout being pregnant.
- Drug addicts who share needles inject medicine intravenously.
- Individuals who have intercourse and not using a condom.
- Individuals who obtained blood transfusions or blood merchandise between 1977 and 1985 (at the moment, screening for the illness in blood donations was not a compulsory protocol).
In different fluids reminiscent of tears, saliva, or sweat, the virus is current however in inadequate amount to contaminate one other particular person. So you’ll be able to keep an in depth relationship with an HIV-positive particular person with out threat of contagion, so long as a collection of precautions are taken.
How AIDS shouldn’t be unfold
To contaminate the physique, HIV must enter the bloodstream (see Prevention of AIDS ), and for this, it requires a route of entry, both via current wounds or by instantly affecting the mucous membranes of the vagina, anus or rectum, penis, mouth, nostril, and eyes. In any other case, it isn’t doable to contract the virus. Subsequently AIDS shouldn’t be transmitted within the following instances :
- Sharing dishes (glasses, cups, plates, glasses), kitchen utensils and cutlery, clothes, or meals. HIV shouldn’t be transmitted via saliva or the air. Subsequently there is no such thing as a hazard when dwelling with contaminated individuals, not even in sharing objects, garments, and meals with them. Neither is there any hazard from hugging and kissing a sick particular person or staying shut when she or he coughs or sneezes.
- By means of home animals. HIV can’t be transmitted from people to animals, or vice versa. Animals may be carriers of different viruses that have an effect on their species, additionally inflicting them immune deficiencies. Nonetheless, they aren’t carriers of HIV, and, subsequently, there is no such thing as a threat that people will likely be contaminated by dwelling with them.
- By having contact with saliva, sweat, feces, urine, or tears.
- From insect bites. The case of mosquitoes, which suck blood, can create confusion, however the mosquito doesn’t inject an individual’s blood (contaminated with HIV or not) into its subsequent sufferer. Moreover, the virus can solely dwell in human cells. The parasites of malaria, a illness transmitted by mosquitoes, reproduce within the insect’s physique, which isn’t the case with HIV.
- Donating blood, semen, or organs. The needles and materials used throughout any donation are sterilized. Subsequently there is no such thing as a threat for the donor. It could possibly be a threat to the recipient if the required checks, that are necessary, are usually not adopted.
- Going to swimming swimming pools, sports activities venues, bogs, buying facilities, cinemas, eating places, or some other public place, frequented by contaminated individuals.